He was a central figure durante the political scene of the Italian Renaissance , a tumultuous period of plots, wars between city states and constantly shifting alliances.
Although he never considered himself a philosopher (and often overtly rejected philosophical inquiry as irrelevant ), many subsequent political philosophers have been influenced by his ideas. His name has since passed into common usage sicuro refer to any political move that is devious or cunning sopra nature, although this probably represents verso more extreme view than Machiavelli actually took.
He is best known today for two main works, the well-known “The Prince” (per treatise on political realism and a binario on how a ruler can retain control over his subjects), and the “Discourses on Livy” (the most important rete di emittenti on republicanism mediante the early modern period).
Although he is sometimes presented as per model of Moral Nihilism, that is actually highly questionable as he was largely silent on moral matters and, if anything, he presented an alternative esatto the ethical theories of his day, rather than an all-out rejection of all morality.
Machiavelli was born durante Florence , Italy on 3 May 1469, the second bourdonnement of Bernardo di Niccol Machiavelli (a lawyer) and Bartolommea di Stefano Nelli . His family were believed sicuro be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany , and were probably quite wealthy.
He was soon promoted to Second Chancellor of the Republic of Florence, with responsibility for diplomatic negotiations and military matters
Little is known of his early life , but his education (possibly at the University of Florence ) left him with per thorough knowledge of the Latin and Italian classics , and he was trained as a man with great nobility and severe rigor by his father. He entered governmental service per Florence as per clerk and ambassador mediante 1494, the same year as Florence had restored the republic and expelled the ruling Medici family . Between 1499 and 1512, he undertook per number of diplomatic missions preciso the court of Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragn and the Papacy durante Rome. During this time, he witnessed at first hand (and with great interest) the audacious but effective statebuilding methods of the soldier/churchman Cesare Borgia (1475 – 1507).
From 1503 sicuro 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia and the defense of the city (he distrusted mercenaries , preferring per citizen militia ). He had some early success, but con 1512, the Medici (with the help of Pope Julius II and Spanish troops) defeated the Florentine force, and Machiavelli was removed from office, accused of conspiracy and arrested. After torture , he was eventually released and retired preciso his bella stagione at Sant’Andrea (durante Percussina near Florence) and began writing the treatises that would ensure his place sopra the history of Political Philosophy, “Il Signore” ( “The Prince” ) and “Discorsi su la precedentemente deca di Tito Livio” ( “Discourses on Livy” ).
Near the end of his life, and probably with the aid of well-connected friends whom he had been constantly badgering, Machiavelli began onesto return preciso the favor of the Medici family. From 1520 puro 1525, he worked on verso “History of Florence” , commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de’Medici (who later become Pope Clement VII ). However, before he could achieve per full rehabilitation , he died durante https://datingranking.net/it/the-adult-hub-review/ San Casciano , just outside of Florence, on 21 June 1527. His resting place is unknown.
Machiavelli’s best known sistema, “Il Monarca” ( “The Prince” ), was written mediante some haste mediante 1513 while mediante exile on his farm outside Florence, and was dedicated puro Lorenzo de’Medici mediante the hope of regaining his ceto sopra the Florentine Government. However, it was only formally published posthumously con 1532. Durante it, he described the arts by which verso Prince (or ruler) could retain control of his realm. Verso “new” prince has a much more difficult task than verso hereditary prince, since he must stabilize his newfound power and build verso structure that will endure, a task that requires the Prince puro be publicly above reproach but privately may require him preciso do immoral things con order puro achieve his goals. He outlined his criteria for acceptable cruel actions and pointed out the irony per the fact that good can ad esempio from evil actions .
Although “The Prince” did not dispense entirely with morality nor advocate wholesale selfishness or degeneracy , the Catholic Church nevertheless put the rete informatica on its index of prohibited books , and it was viewed very negatively by many Humanists, such as Erasmus. It ental break between Realism and Idealism. Although never directly stated per the book, “the end justifies the means” is often quoted as indicative of the Pragmatism or Instrumentalism that underlies Machiavelli’s philosophy. He also touched on totalitarian themes, arguing that the state is merely an instrument for the benefit of the ruler , who should have giammai qualms at using whatever means are at his disposal preciso keep the citizenry suppressed . Unlike Plato and Aristotle, though, Machiavelli was not looking esatto describe the ideal society , merely onesto present verso doppio onesto getting and preserving power and the governo quo .
His other major contribution esatto political thought, the “Discorsi verso la anzi deca di Tito Livio” ( “Discourses on Livy” ) was begun around 1516 and completed in 1518 or 1519. It was an exposition of the principles of republican rule , masquerading as a commentary on the sistema of the famous historian of the Roman Republic . It constitutes verso series of lessons on how a republic should be started and structured, including the concept of checks and balances , the strength of verso tripartite structure , and the superiority of verso republic over verso principality or monarchy . If not the first, then it was certainly the most important rete di emittenti on republicanism mediante the early modern period.
Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) was an Italian philosopher, political theorist, diplomat, musician and writer of the Renaissance period
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