Work with us. Are you ready to change the game? Find out more →

News & Blog

Sulawesi has per long history of human occupation

News & Blog

Sulawesi has per long history of human occupation

174,000 km 2 ) per Wallacea, a biogeographically distinct champ of oceanic islands situated between continental Oriente and Australia (Fig. 1). The earliest archaeological evidence is from Talepu, a Middle Pleistocene site per the south of the island (1). The Talepu findings comprise con situ stone artifacts associated with fossils of extinct terrestrial megafauna (1). Dated puro

194 preciso 118 thousand years (ka), these artifacts may reflect initial colonization by an as-yet unidentified archaic hominin (1). It is not yet indivis when anatomically modern humans (AMH) first colonized Sulawesi. AMH appear puro have been established con mainland Southeast Oriente (Sunda) by 73 preciso 63 ka (2). They were also possibly con Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea (Sahul) by 69 preciso 59 ka (3). There is some controversy, however, over the validity of the latter age estimates (4), which are based on recent excavations at Madjedbebe rock shelter con northern Australia (3). Durante some models of early human settlement sopra Sahul, the large Sulawesi landmass would have been the first “stop” on per series of ocean crossings through northern Wallacea puro the western tip of New Guinea (5). If the oldest published dates for Madjedbebe (3) are acceptable, then Homo sapiens may have reached Sulawesi up to 69 preciso 59 ka.

450-km 2 lowland “tower” karst region sopra the island’s southwestern peninsula (Fig. 1). Some 300 caves and shelters with parietal imagery have now been identified in this sezione. Two cave art sites are also known from the Bone karsts

35 km puro the east (Fig. 1). At least two chronologically distinct styles of rock art are evident on the basis of scientific dating and studies of superimposition. These comprise (i) an initial style phase of well-established Pleistocene antiquity (6, 7) and (ii) a later phase that postdates the arrival of Austronesian-speaking farmers and the onset of the “Neolithic” farming transition around 4 ka visitatori internationalcupid (9). Where in nessun caso sequence of superimposition is evident, the former is distinguishable from the latter mediante terms of subject matter, technique, and preservation (6, 10).

Materials and methods

24 to 16 ka (18). Evidence for rock art production of a broadly similar antiquity is found sopra karst areas sopra the adjacent island of Borneo: At Lubang Jeriji Saleh, verso high-level limestone cave per Kalimantan, U-series dating indicates per minimum age of 40 ka for per figurative painting of verso Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi) (19).

U-series isotope dating at Leang Tedongnge

12 mm 2 ) overlaid the red pigment associated with one of the rear feet of pig 1 on the main rock art panel (Fig. 5, Verso puro C). This speleothem was too small durante size esatto remove with per rotary tool. Hence, we used a small chisel preciso prise it from the cave wall surface. The recovered sample (LTed3) comprises multiple layers of dense and nonporous calcite. The portion of speleothem we removed from the cave wall extends from its outer surface through the pigment layer and into the underlying rock face (Fig. 5, D and Addirittura). After we had removed it from the cave wall, we noted that the portion of the underlying paint layer previously covered by the coralloid speleothem had che razza di away with the latter-that is, the rock art pigment was affixed preciso the questione of the sampled speleothem. Durante the laboratory, we micro-excavated LTed3 per arbitrary “spits” that extended over the entire surface of the speleothem. This produced per series of four aliquots measuring less than 1 mm durante thickness (Fig. 5, F to G). We observed the red pigment layer corresponding sicuro the artwork across the entire length of the sample. The pigment layer was also clearly visible per the rear portion of the sample that was partially covered by translucent calcite from the cave wall (Fig. 5E). Durante total, we obtained three U-series age determinations for the LTed3 speleothem (Table 1). The resultant dates yielded indistinguishable ages within uncertainties (Table 1). This suggests closed-system conditions for uranium and thorium (Materials and Methods). The results of U-series dating indicate a minimum age of 45.5 ka for the large figurative image of a suid at Leang Tedongnge (Fig. 3 and Materials and Methods).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *